Independent between the two World Wars, Lithuania was annexed by the USSR in 1940. On 11 March 1990, Lithuania became the first of the Soviet republics to declare its independence, but Moscow did not recognize this proclamation until September of 1991 (following the abortive coup in Moscow). The last Russian troops withdrew in 1993. Lithuania subsequently restructured its economy for integration into Western European institutions; it joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004.


Country Facts

lithuania_factsGeography

Location:
Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Latvia and Russia
Geographic coordinates:
56 00 N, 24 00 E
Map references:
Europe
Area:
total: 65,200 sq km
Area – comparative:
Slightly larger than West Virginia
Land boundaries:
total: 1,273 km
border countries:
Belarus 502 km, Latvia 453 km, Poland 91 km, Russia (Kaliningrad) 227 km
Coastline:
99 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
Climate:
transitional, between maritime and continental; wet, moderate winters and summers
Terrain:
lowland, many scattered small lakes, fertile soil
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point: Juozapines/Kalnas 292 m
Natural resources:
peat, arable land, amber
Land use:
agricultural land: 44.8% (arable land 34.9%; permanent crops 0.5%; permanent pasture 9.4%)
forest: 34.6%
other: 20.6% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land:
44 sq km (2012)
Environment – current issues:
contamination of soil and groundwater with petroleum products and chemicals at military bases
Environment – international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
Geography – note:
fertile central plains are separated by hilly uplands that are ancient glacial deposits


People and Society

Nationality:
noun: Lithuanian(s)
adjective: Lithuanian
Ethnic groups:
Lithuanian 84.1%, Polish 6.6%, Russian 5.8%, Belarusian 1.2%, other 1.1%, unspecified 1.2% (2011 est.)
Languages:
Lithuanian (official) 82%, Russian 8%, Polish 5.6%, other 0.9%, unspecified 3.5% (2011 est.)
Religions:
Roman Catholic 77.2%, Russian Orthodox 4.1%, Old Believer 0.8%, Evangelical Lutheran 0.6%, Evangelical Reformist 0.2%, other (including Sunni Muslim, Jewish, Greek Catholic, and Karaite) 0.8%, none 6.1%, unspecified 10.1% (2011 est.)
Population:
2,884,433 (July 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 140
Age structure:
0-14 years: 14.91% (male 220,460/female 209,501)
15-24 years: 11.97% (male 178,332/female 166,985)
25-54 years: 40.71% (male 575,323/female 598,912)
55-64 years: 13.26% (male 168,354/female 214,201)
65 years and over: 19.15% (male 186,458/female 365,907) (2015 est.)
population pyramid:
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 50.1%
youth dependency ratio: 21.8%
elderly dependency ratio: 28.3%
potential support ratio: 3.5% (2015 est.)
Median age:
total: 43.1 years
male: 39.3 years
female: 46.3 years (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14
Population growth rate:
-1.04% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 230
Birth rate:
10.1 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 193
Death rate:
14.27 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 7
Net migration rate:
-6.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 201
Urbanization:
urban population: 66.5% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: -0.53% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas – population:
VILNIUS (capital) 517,000 (2015)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.79 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.51 male(s)/female
total population: 0.85 male(s)/female (2015 est.)
Mother’s mean age at first birth:
26.7 (2011 est.)
Maternal mortality rate:
10 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 163
Infant mortality rate:
total: 3.84 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.36 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 196
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 74.69 years
male: 69.24 years
female: 80.46 years (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 113
Total fertility rate:
1.59 children born/woman (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 182
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
62.9%
note: percent of women aged 18-49 (2006)
Health expenditures:
6.2% of GDP (2013)
country comparison to the world: 90
Physicians density:
4.12 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
Hospital bed density:
7 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 99.7% of population
rural: 90.4% of population
total: 96.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.3% of population
rural: 9.6% of population
total: 3.4% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 97.2% of population
rural: 82.8% of population
total: 92.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2.8% of population
rural: 17.2% of population
total: 7.6% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate:
NA
HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS:
NA
HIV/AIDS – deaths:
NA
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: intermediate
vectorborne diseases: tickborne encephalitis (2013)
Obesity – adult prevalence rate:
27.5% (2014)
country comparison to the world: 38
Education expenditures:
4.8% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 61
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.8%
male: 99.8%
female: 99.8% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 17 years
male: 16 years
female: 17 years (2014)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 19.3%
male: 19.6%
female: 18.7% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 35


Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Lithuania
conventional short form: Lithuania
local long form: Lietuvos Respublika
local short form: Lietuva
former: Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic
Government type:
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Vilnius
Administrative divisions:
10 counties (apskritys, singular – apskritis); Alytaus, Kauno, Klaipedos, Marijampoles, Panevezio, Siauliu, Taurages, Telsiu, Utenos, Vilniaus
Independence:
11 March 1990 (independence declared from Soviet Union); 6 September 1991 (Soviet Union recognizes Lithuania’s independence)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 16 February (1918); note – 16 February 1918 is the date Lithuania declared its independence from Soviet Russia and established its statehood; 11 March 1990 is the date it declared its independence from the Soviet Union
Constitution:
adopted 25 October 1992
Legal system:
based on civil law system; legislative acts can be appealed to the constitutional court
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Dalia GRYBAUSKAITE (since 12 July 2009)
head of governmente: Prime Minister Algirdas BUTKEVICIUS (since 22 November 2012)
cabinete: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister, appointed by the president, and approved by Parliament
elections/appointmentse: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 11 and 25 May 2014 (next to be held in May 2019); prime minister appointed by the president, approved by Parliament
election results: Dalia GRYBAUSKAITE reelected president; percent of vote – Dalia GRYBAUSKAITE (independent) 59%, Zigmantas BALCYTIS (LSDP) 41%; Algirdas BUTKEVICIUS (LSDP) approved as prime minister by Parliament vote – 90 of 130
Legislative branch:
unicameral Parliament or Seimas (141 seats, 71 members are elected by popular vote, 70 are elected by proportional representation; members serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 10 and 24 October 2004 (next to be held in October 2008)
election results: percent of vote by party – Labor 28.6%, Working for Lithuania (Social Democrats and Social Liberals) 20.7%, TS 14.6%, For Order and Justice (Liberal Democrats and Lithuanian People’s Union) 11.4%, Liberal and Center Union 9.1%, Farmers and New Democracy Union 6.6%, other 9%; seats by faction – Labor 29, Homeland Union 26, Social Democrats 23, Civil Democracy (split from Labor) 11, Liberal Movement (formerly Liberal Political Group) 11, National Farmer’s Union (formerly Farmers and New Democracy Union) 11, Social Liberal 10, Liberal Democrats 9, Liberal and Center Union 8, independents 3 (as of late-July 2006)
Judicial branch:
Constitutional Court; Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; judges for all courts appointed by the President
Political parties and leaders:
Civil Democracy Party [Viktor MUNTIANAS]; Electoral Action of Lithuanian Poles [Valdemar TOMASZEVSKI]; National Farmer’s Union [Kazimiera PRUNSKIENE]; Homeland Union/Conservative Party or TS [Andrius KUBILIUS]; Labor Party [Kestutis DAUKSYS]; Liberal and Center Union [Arturas ZUOKAS]; Liberal Democratic Party [Rolandas PAKSAS]; Liberal Movement [Petras AUSTREVICIUS]; Lithuanian Christian Democrats or LKD [Valentinas STUNDYS]; Lithuanian People’s Union for a Fair Lithuania [Julius VESELKA]; Lithuanian Social Democratic Party [Algirdas BRAZAUSKAS]; Social Liberal/New Union [Arturas PAULAUSKAS]; Social Union of Christian Conservatives [Gediminas VAGNORIUS]; Young Lithuania and New Nationalists [Stanislovas BUSKEVICIUS] International organization participation:
ACCT (observer), Australia Group, BA, BIS, CBSS, CE, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EU (new member), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, NATO, NIB, NSG, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU (associate partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), green, and red


Economy

Economy – overview:
Lithuania gained membership in the WTO in May 2001 and joined the EU in May 2004. Lithuania’s trade with the EU and CIS countries accounts for approximately 87.3% of total trade. Foreign investment and EU funding have aided in the transition from the former planned economy to a market economy. The three former Soviet Baltic republics were severely hit by the 2008-09 financial crisis, but Lithuania has rebounded and become one of the fastest growing economies in the EU. Lithuania’s ongoing recovery hinges on export growth, which is being hampered by economic slowdowns in the EU and Russia. Lithuania joined the euro zone on 1 January 2015 and is under review for membership in the OECD.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$82.36 billion (2015 est.)
$81.06 billion (2014 est.)
$78.68 billion (2013 est.)
note: data are in 2015 US dollars
country comparison to the world: 90
GDP (official exchange rate):
$41.27 billion (2015 est.)
GDP – real growth rate:
1.6% (2015 est.)
3% (2014 est.)
3.5% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 147
GDP – per capita (PPP):
$28,400 (2015 est.)
$27,600 (2014 est.)
$26,600 (2013 est.)
note: data are in 2015 US dollars
country comparison to the world: 65
Gross national saving:
16.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
21.9% of GDP (2014 est.)
20.7% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 101
GDP – composition, by end use:
household consumption: 64.5%
government consumption: 16.5%
investment in fixed capital: 20.3%
investment in inventories: 3.7%
exports of goods and services: 83.2%
imports of goods and services: -88.2% (2015 est.)
GDP – composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 3.5%
industry: 30.7%
services: 65.8% (2015 est.)
Agriculture – products:
grain, potatoes, sugar beets, flax, vegetables; beef, milk, eggs, pork, cheese; fish
Industries:
metal-cutting machine tools, electric motors, television sets, refrigerators and freezers, petroleum refining, shipbuilding (small ships), furniture, textiles, food processing, fertilizers, agricultural machinery, optical equipment, lasers, electronic components, computers, amber jewelry, information technology, video game development, biotechnology
Industrial production growth rate:
3.6% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 65
Labor force:
1.464 million (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 133
Labor force – by occupation:
agriculture: 7.9%
industry: 19.6%
services: 72.5% (2012 est.)
Unemployment rate:
8.2% (2015 est.)
10.7% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95
Population below poverty line:
4% (2008 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.6%
highest 10%: 29.1% (2008)
Distribution of family income – Gini index:
35.5 (2009)
34 (1999)
country comparison to the world: 91
Budget:
revenues: $13.31 billion
expenditures: $13.97 billion (2015 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
31.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 78
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-1.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 64
Public debt:
38.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
39.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
note: official data; data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities, debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are sold at public auctions
country comparison to the world: 120
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
-0.7% (2015 est.)
0.2% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19
Central bank discount rate:
0.05% (31 December 2013)
0.3% (31 December 2012)
country comparison to the world: 140
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
3.2% (31 December 2015 est.)
3.5% (31 December 2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 168
Stock of narrow money:
$17.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$14.67 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 67
Stock of broad money:
$22.25 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$22.41 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 86
Stock of domestic credit:
$21.08 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$22.34 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 84
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$3.964 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$4.075 billion (31 December 2011)
$5.661 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 92
Current account balance:
-$932 million (2015 est.)
$1.734 billion (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 117
Exports:
$30.92 billion (2015 est.)
$31.55 billion (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 62
Exports – commodities:
refined fuel, machinery and equipment, chemicals, textiles, foodstuffs, plastics
Exports – partners:
Russia 13.7%, Latvia 9.8%, Poland 9.7%, Germany 7.8%, Estonia 5.3%, Belarus 4.6%, UK 4.5%, US 4.4%, Netherlands 4% (2015)
Imports:
$33.97 billion (2015 est.)
$33.54 billion (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 62
Imports – commodities:
oil, natural gas, machinery and equipment, transport equipment, chemicals, textiles and clothing, metals
Imports – partners:
Russia 16.9%, Germany 11.5%, Poland 10.3%, Latvia 7.6%, Netherlands 5.1%, Italy 4.5% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$8.728 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$8.072 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 78
Debt – external:
$30.81 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$33.64 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 74
Stock of direct foreign investment – at home:
$17.1 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$15.8 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 82
Stock of direct foreign investment – abroad:
$4.164 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$3.814 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 70
Exchange rates:
litai (LTL) per US dollar –
0.9091 (2015 est.)
0.7525 (2014 est.)
0.7525 (2013 est.)
2.69 (2012 est.)
2.481 (2011 est.)


Communications

Telephones – fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 590,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 20 (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 93
Telephones – mobile cellular:
total: 4.4 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 152 (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 124
Telephone system:
general assessment:
adequate; being modernized to provide improved international capability and better residential access
domestic:
rapid expansion of mobile-cellular services has resulted in a steady decline in the number of fixed-line connections; mobile-cellular teledensity stands at about 140 per 100 persons
international:
country code – 370; major international connections to Denmark, Sweden, and Norway by submarine cable for further transmission by satellite; landline connections to Latvia and Poland (2010)
Broadcast media:
public broadcaster operates 3 channels with the third channel – a satellite channel – introduced in 2007; various privately owned commercial TV broadcasters operate national and multiple regional channels; many privately owned local TV stations; multi-channel cable and satellite TV services available; publicly owned broadcaster operates 3 radio networks; many privately owned commercial broadcasters, with repeater stations in various regions throughout the country (2007)
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 29, FM 142, shortwave 1 (2001)
Television broadcast stations:
44 (may have as many as 100 transmitters, including repeater stations) (2008)
Internet country code:
.lt
Internet hosts:
1.205 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 43
Internet users:
total: 2 million
percent of population: 70.3% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 97


Transportation

Airports:
61 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 79
Airports – with paved runways:
total: 22
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 9 (2013)
Airports – with unpaved runways:
total: 39
over 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 36 (2013)
Pipelines:
gas 1,921 km; refined products 121 km (2013)
Railways:
total: 1,768 km
broad gauge: 1,746 km 1.520-m gauge (122 km electrified)
standard gauge: 22 km 1.435-m gauge (2014)
country comparison to the world: 76
Roadways:
total: 84,166 km
paved: 72,297 km (includes 312 km of expressways)
unpaved: 11,869 km (2012)
country comparison to the world: 56
Waterways:
441 km (navigable year round) (2007)
country comparison to the world: 86
Merchant marine:
total: 38
by type: cargo 20, container 1, passenger/cargo 6, refrigerated cargo 9, roll on/roll off 2
foreign-owned: 8 (Denmark 8)
registered in other countries: 22 (Antigua and Barbuda 3, Belize 1, Comoros 1, Cook Islands 1, Norway 1, Panama 3, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 9, unknown 3) (2010)
country comparison to the world: 77
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Klaipeda
oil terminals: Butinge oil terminal
LNG terminal(s) (import): Klaipeda


Military and Security

Military branches:
Lithuanian Armed Forces (Lietuvos Ginkluotosios Pajegos): Land Forces (Sausumos Pajegos), Naval Forces (Karines Juru Pajegos), Air Forces (Karines Oro Pajegos), Special Forces (Specialiuju Operaciju Pajegos); Volunteer Forces (Savanoriu Pajegos) (2015)
Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for military service; 9-month service obligation; Lithuania converted to a professional military in the fall of 2008, although the decision continues under judicial review; a new law passed in March 2015 restored conscription on a limited, 5-year basis; in March 2016, Lithuania’s National Security and Defense Council recommended permanently restoring conscription service (2016)
Military expenditures:
1.48% of GDP (2016)
1.11% of GDP (2015)
0.9% of GDP (2014)
0.8% of GDP (2013)
0.97% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 103