1323 Grand Duke of Lithuania Gedimin choose Vilnius as the capital of the principality of Lithuania.

1387 Granted city rights.

1390 The Crooked Castle was burned down by the Teutonic Knights and was never rebuilt.

vilnius-history-upper-castle-gediminas-castle-2-photo-leif-almo1409 Gerimina’s Brick Tower, the upper castle, was completed by Grand Duke Vytautas

1579 The city’s university founded; it’s the oldest one in Lithuania.

1569 Union of Lithuania and Poland the city now became recognized as a centre not only of Polish culture but also of Jewish learning.

1655  In flames and captured by Russian forces, the city was plundered and the population was massacred.

1769 Rasos Cemetery one of the oldest surviving cemeteries in the world was founded. The cemetery is the final rest for many famous people from the past up until today.

1796 Incorporated into the Russian Empire.

1812 Seized by Napoleon I on his move forwards to Moscow.

1831 The November Uprising against the Russians. University of Vilnius was closed due to Russian repression.

1863 The January Uprising against the Russians brutally pacified, by Mikhail “the Hangman” Muravyov. Local language was banned due to the Russian supremacy. Many deported to Siberia.
1915-1918 Occupied by German forces during World War I.

1920 Became a part of the Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR).

1920 Poland forces reoccupied the city.

1939 The USSR captured the city.

1940 Became the capital of the newly formed Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic SSR.

1941- 1944 Occupied by German forces during World War II.

1991 Continuing to be the capital, but now to the newly independent Lithuania.

2004 Member of NATO and a member of the EU.

2009 City of Culture (European Union)